The str_format library is a typesafe replacement for the family of printf() string formatting routines within the <cstdio> standard library header. The str_format library provides most of the functionality of printf() type string formatting and a number of additional benefits:

  • Type safety, including native support for std::string and absl::string_view
  • Reliable behavior independent of standard libraries
  • Support for the POSIX positional extensions
  • Much faster (generally 2 to 3 times faster) than native printf functions
  • Streamable to a variety of existing sinks

Additionally, the library includes replacements for printf(), fprintf(), and snprintf().

Basic Usage

The main StrFormat() function is a variadic template that returns a string given a printf()-style format string and zero or more additional arguments. Use it as you would sprintf().

The format string generally consists of ordinary character data along with one or more format conversion specifiers (denoted by the % character). Ordinary character data is returned unchanged into the result string, while each conversion specification performs a type substitution from StrFormat()’s other arguments.

StrFormat() returns an empty string on error, and is marked as ABSL_MUST_USE_RESULT.


std::string s = absl::StrFormat("Welcome to %s, Number %d!", "The Village", 6);
EXPECT_EQ("Welcome to The Village, Number 6!", s);

The StrFormat() format string should usually be declared constexpr*; as a result, if you need to provide it as a variable, use an absl::string_view instead of a std::string:

// Won't compile, not constexpr (and strings can't be declared constexpr).
std::string formatString = "Welcome to %s, Number %d!";
std::string s = absl::StrFormat(formatString, "The Village", 6);

// This will compile.
constexpr absl::string_view formatString = "Welcome to %s, Number %d!";
std::string s = absl::StrFormat(formatString, "The Village", 6);

Requiring the format string to be constexpr allows compiler-time checking of the format strings.

NOTE: * a format string must either be declared constexpr or dynamically formatted using a ParsedFormat type. See the forthcoming “Advanced StrFormat Usage’ guide for information on dynamic formatting.

Conversion Specifiers

The str_format library follows the POSIX syntax as used within the POSIX printf() family specification, which specifies the makeup of a format conversion specifier. A format conversion specifier is a string of the following form:

  • The % character
  • An optional positional specifier of the form n$, where n is a non-negative, positive value. (E.g. 3$, 10$, etc.). Note that positional modifiers are fully supported in StrFormat; they are a POSIX extension and not part of standard printf notation.
  • An optional set of justification and padding flags:
    • - to left-justify the result. (Right-justification is the default.)
    • + to force prepending a plus sign to positive results. (Minus signs are always prepended.)
    • (space) to prepend spaces to the result of a signed conversion. (+ takes precedence over spaces).
    • # to use an alternative form of conversion for certain specifiers. (E.g. Using # on a hex conversion will prepend 0x or 0X to hex string results.)
    • 0 (zero) to pad leading zeros for integer and floating-point conversions. (Zero-padding is ignored for integers if precision is explicitly specified.) This flag is ignored if - is used.
  • An optional integer value of the form n to specify the minimum width of the result, or *variable to use a variable of type int to specify this value.
  • An optional precision value specified as .n, where n is a integral value, or .*variable to use a variable of type int to specify this value.
  • A length modifer to modify the length of the data type. In StrFormat(), these values are ignored (and not needed, since StrFormat() is type-safe) but are allowed for backwards compatibility:
    • hh, h, l, ll, L, j, z, t, q
  • A type-specifier:
    • c for character values
    • s for string values
    • d or i for integer values, including enumerated type values
    • o for unsigned integer conversions, including enumerated type values, into octal values
    • x or X for unsigned integer conversions, including enumerated type values, into hex values
    • u for unsigned integer values
    • f or F for floating point values into decimal notation
    • e or E for floating point values into exponential notation
    • a or A for floating point values into hex exponential notation
    • g or G for floating point values into decimal or exponential notation based on their precision
    • p for pointer address values
    • n for the special case of writing out the number of characters written to this point.

NOTE: the n specifier within the printf family of functions is unsafe. StrFormat() allows use of %n only when capturing such values within a safe FormatCountCapture class. See example below.


// Characters
absl::StrFormat("%c", 'a') -> "a"
absl::StrFormat("%c", 32)  -> " "
absl::StrFormat("%c", 100) -> "d"

// Strings
absl::StrFormat("%s", "Hello!") -> "Hello!"

// Decimals
absl::StrFormat("%d", 1)    -> "1"
absl::StrFormat("%02d", 1)  -> "01"       // Zero-padding
absl::StrFormat("%-2d", 1)  -> "1 "       // Left justification
absl::StrFormat("%0+3d", 1) -> "+01");    // + specifier part of width

// Octals
absl::StrFormat("%o", 16)   -> "20"
absl::StrFormat("%o", 016)  -> "16"       // literal octal
absl::StrFormat("%#o", 016) -> "016"      // alternative form

// Hex
absl::StrFormat("%x", 16)    -> "10"
absl::StrFormat("%x", 0x16)  -> "16"
absl::StrFormat("%#x", 0x16) -> "0x16"    // alternative form
absl::StrFormat("%X", 10)    -> "A"       // Upper-case

// Unsigned Integers
absl::StrFormat("%u", 16) -> "16"
absl::StrFormat("%u", -16) -> "4294967280"

// Floating Point
// Default precision of %f conversion is 6
absl::StrFormat("%f", 1.6)       -> "1.600000" // Width includes decimal pt.
absl::StrFormat("%05.2f", 1.6)   -> "01.60"
absl::StrFormat("%.1f", 1.63232) -> "1.6"      // Rounding down
absl::StrFormat("%.3f", 1.63451) -> "1.635"    // Rounding up

// Exponential Notation
// Default precision of a %e conversion is 6
// Default precision of exponent is 2
// Default sign of exponent is +
absl::StrFormat("%e", 1.6)    -> "1.600000e+00"
absl::StrFormat("%1.1e", 1.6) -> "1.6e+00"

// Hex Exponents
absl::StrFormat("%a", 3.14159) -> "0x1.921f9f01b866ep+1"

// Floating Point to Exponential Notation
absl::StrFormat("%g", 31415900000) -> "3.14159e+10"

// Pointer conversion
int* ptr = 9;
absl::StrFormat("%p", ptr) -> "0x7ffdeb6ad2a4";

// Positional Modifiers
std::string s = absl::StrFormat("%2$s, %3$s, %1$s!", "vici", "veni", "vidi");
EXPECT_EQ(s, "veni, vidi, vici!");

// Character Count Capturing
int n = 0;
std::string s = absl::StrFormat(
    "%s%d%n", "hello", 123, absl::FormatCountCapture(&n));
EXPECT_EQ(8, n);

Type Support

StrFormat() intrinsically supports all of these fundamental C++ types:

  • Characters:
    • char
    • signed char
    • unsigned char
  • Integers:
    • int
    • short
    • unsigned short
    • unsigned
    • long
    • unsigned long
    • long long
    • unsigned long long
  • Floating-point:
    • float
    • double
    • long double

Unlike the printf family of functions, StrFormat() doesn’t rely on callers encoding the exact types of arguments into the format string. (With printf() this must be carefully done with length modifiers and conversion specifiers - such as %llu encoding the type unsigned long long.) In the str_format library, a format conversion specifies a broader C++ conceptual category instead of an exact type. For example, %s binds to any string-like argument, so std::string, absl::string_view, and const char* are all accepted. Likewise, %d accepts any integer-like argument, etc.

PrintF Replacements

In addition to the std::sprintf()-like StrFormat() function, str_format.h also provides a number of drop-in replacements for std::printf(), std::fprintf() and std::snprintf():

  • absl::PrintF()
  • absl::FPrintF()
  • absl::SNPrintF()

These functions are all analogs to the C builtin functions. In particular, they take the same arguments, return an int with the same semantics and can set errno. Use these functions as you would use any printf variant.


absl::PrintF("Trying to request TITLE: %s USER: %s\n", title, user);

Appending to a String

The absl::StrAppendFormat() function allows you to perform printf-like formatting to an existing &dest string, appending the formatted string to it. StrAppendFormat() returns *dest as a convenience for chaining purposes.


std::string& absl::StrAppendFormat(&dest, format, ...)

Writing to a Stream

absl::StreamFormat() returns an object that can be efficiently streamed to a std::ostream, such as I/O or files.

NOTE: the returned object must be used immediately. That is, do not retain it in an ‘auto’ variable.


//  Stream to standard output
std::cout << absl::StreamFormat("name: %-20.4s: quota: %7.3f", name, quota);

// Stream to a file
FILE * fileHandle;
fileHandle = fopen("myfile.txt","w");
if (fileHandle!=nullptr)
  int result =
      absl::FPrintF(fileHandle, "%s", "C:\\Windows\\System32\\");
  return result;