charconv library provides C++11-compatible vesion of the C++17
<charconv> library header, adding light-weight parsers and formatters for
arithmetic types. In specific, this library contains a C++11-compatible version
std::from_chars to convert from a string to an arithmetic type (in this
double). This design note describes the algorithm used for that
conversion and design decisions made in its implementation.
absl::from_chars() algorithm will convert any decimal floating-point
string to the exact representable double that is nearest to the value of the
input string. (In the case of ties, we round to the representation whose
mantissa is even.)
To make an initial guess in the
absl::from_chars decimal-to-binary conversion,
we do hand-rolled floating point math using a
uint128 to store our mantissa.
To determine whether this initial guess is guaranteed to be the correctly rounded value, or instead if we must resort to high-precision integer math to make this determination, we establish lower bounds on the number of bits of accuracy we will get out of our multiplication.
We represent our hand-rolled
float values as the product of an integer (the
mantissa) and a power of two. (We do not store a radix point). These values are
calculated according to the constraints noted below.
The algorithm always reads the mantissa as an integer, doing a decimal-point
adjustment if necessary. (For example,
1.25e-1 is calculated as
We will read up to 19 significant digits of mantissa from the input. Significant digits beyond this point are dropped, in which case the integral mantissa we use in calculations is a truncated representation of the true value. The relationship in this case is:
DM_true = DM_trunc + DM_error (DM is intended as an abbreviation for
DM_trunc is an integer in the range
[10**18, 10**19), and
is a real number in the range
The algorithm relies on a lookup table of powers of ten, stored in our internal
floating-point representation. For each power of ten in the range of our
calculation, we have a precalculated mantissa and exponent, such that
EM[N] * 2**EE[N].
EM is chosen to be a lower bound guess. The
exact bounds are: (EM and EE are intended as abbreviations for “exponent
mantissa” and “exponent exponent”.)
EM * 2**EE <= 10**N < (EM + 1) * 2**EE
For values of N between 0 and 27 inclusive, the representation
EM * 2**EE is
exact. For numbers outside this range, EM is a truncated representation of the
The error bound relationship is:
EM_true = EM_trunc + EM_error
EM_trunc is an integer in the range
[2**63, 2**64), and
a real number in the range
[0.0, 1.0). (When N is less than 0 or greater than
EM_error is nonzero.)
To generate an initial floating point guess, we multiply the parsed mantissa by
the appropriate power of ten. This gives us a
uint128 value, but due to errors
in truncation for both the mantissa and power of ten value, we may only rely on
a certain number of bits of precision. We calculate this error bounds below.
When the input mantissa is inexact, our calculated binary mantissa will be
guess = DM_trunc * EM_trunc
But the exact value of the mantissa should be
exact = (DM_trunc + DM_error) * (EM_trunc + EM_error)
which means our guess has an error of
error = exact - guess error = DM_trunc * EM_error + EM_trunc * DM_error + DM_error * EM_error
Because both our mantissa and exponent are truncated from the actual value, our guess is low, and error is always positive.
EM_trunc have minimum values as described above, which ensure
that the integer
guess has no fewer than 123 significant bits.
Likewise, because all arguments in
error have an upper bound, we can plug
these values in and deduce that
error < 2**65, or in other words that our
error affects no more than the low 65 significant bits of our product.
Therefore, the high 58 bits of our product are either the correct high 58 bits of the true product, or are one less than the correct value (in the case that the addition of the error value carries into these bits).
A double precision IEEE float only has 53 bits of significant mantissa. The remaining five bits can usually tell us the correct rounding direction.
If the low five bits are in the range
0b01110, then we know the
correct rounding direction is down, and the high 53 bits of our product are the
correct binary mantissa bits for our conversion. Likewise, if the low five bits
are in the range
0b11111, we know the correct rounding direction
More subtly, if the low five bits are
0b10000, we would normally have to
decide whether the correct rounding direction is “up” or “toward even”. However,
this code path requires that our mantissa is inexact, so we know that
is nonzero, and so also is
error. The correct value must therefore be some
epsilon greather than the value in our high 58 bits, and the correct rounding
direction must be up as well.
Only if the low five bits are
0b01111 does the error prevent us from guessing
a rounding direction. In this case we must resort to exact integer math.
When the input mantissa is 19 or fewer digits wide (the common case), then our error bounds are lessened:
guess = DM_true * EM_trunc exact = DM_true * (EM_trunc + EM_error) error = DM_true * EM_error
EM_trunc is at least
2**63, and because
EM_error is less than one,
we know that our guess is no less than
DM_true << 63 and our error is no
DM_true. From this, we can establish that the high 63 bits of our
product are reliable: again, they are either exact or one less than correct (in
the case of carry).
The rounding considerations are the same as before, except for the larger number of bits we can consider.
When the input mantissa in 19 and the decimal exponent is between 0 and 27 inclusive, then there is no truncation error, and our product is exact.
The high 53 bits are our guess, and the remaining bits are used to choose the
correct rounding direction. If the remaining bits are exactly
then we should round to even. (That is, if the low bit of our 53-bit guess is a
0, we round down; if it’s a 1, we round up.)
In the case where the above algorithm cannot determine a rounding direction, we must resort to high-precision integer math.
The idea is to calculate the exact value of the real number that lies halfway between the two adjacent candidate double representations, and compare that to the exact value of the parsed input. The result of this comparison tells us the rounding direction.
The comparison we are calculating is:
binary_mantissa * 2**binary_exponent <=> decimal_mantissa * 10**decimal_exponent
In the case where
decimal_exponent are negative, they
can be moved to the other side of the equation to make the exponent positive. In
this way, our calculation contains only integers.
Further memory can be saved by converting the power of 10 to
5**decimal_exponent * 2**decimal_exponent, and cancelling out the powers of 2
where possible. The powers of 2 result in a single left shift; left shifts of
greater than 32 bits can be represented by virtual word shifts; we need not
actually reserve room for the all-bits-zero
uint32_ts that result.
A design goal of
absl::from_chars is to avoid memory allocations. To do this,
we use fixed size big-integer math, with enough memory reserved on the stack to
avoid overflow. Because the size of the decimal mantissa is controlled by the
from_chars, we must truncate this input.
We only need to read enough digits from the decimal_mantissa so that we can
capture the exact decimal representation of any real number halfway between two
floats. The largest such numbers live near zero. The number halfway between
DBL_MIN and the next representable double has an exact decimal mantissa of 768
digits. Therefore we only have to read 768 significant decimal digits to
correctly calculate rounding direction.
There is a pathological input case which takes a number halfway between two representable reals which would normally round down, and appending to its mantissa a very long run of 0s followed by a nonzero digit. This extra digit should change the rounding direction. To account for this case without needing to read arbitrary precision mantissas, we use a sticky digit strategy. If the 768th significant digit is a ‘0’ or ‘5’, and if any of the dropped digits beyond this point are nonzero, we adjust the 768th digit upward to a ‘1’ or ‘6’. This causes us to choose the correct rounding direction in all cases, without requiring extra storage.
Arbitrary 768-digit integers require 2552 bits of precision, which can be stored
in a big integer class comprised of 80
Note that during scanning, we adjust the input so the mantissa is an integer.
The largest representable double is less than
1.8e308, so once we have read
more than 308 significant digits from the mantissa, the decimal exponent has
necessarily been adjusted to be negative, so we will never overflow by
multiplying a very big int by a power of 5. (The power of 5 will have been moved
to the other side of the equation. Our initial guess routine detects obvious
cases of overflow and underflow and short circuits, avoiding falling to useless
As an easy future optimization, we could reduce the number of significant digits we read dynamically, based on the power of two exponent in our initial guess. The farther we are from the extremes, the fewer digits of precision are needed to exactly represent a real number between two doubles.